History of Morocco
History of Morocco
Prehistory and antiquity
300 000 years ago. Presence of man. Humid and tropical climate, vegetation of savannas and forests in Morocco.
IIIth millennium. Drying out of the climate, the introduction of the agriculture and the breeding.
IIth millennium. Bronze Age.
VIIth century BC Phoenicians establish counters on the Moroccan coasts.
V-IV century BC Carthaginian substitute themselves for Phoenicians and exercise their cultural influence on the Berber realm of Mauritanus.
146 BC. Rome overcomes Carthage and spreads its influence in all North Africa. The most famous king of Mauritanus, Juba II, reigns from 25 BC to 23 after J-C.
42 after J-C. Morocco passes under Roman dominion. Creation of Mauritanus Tingitane with Tingis ( called Tangiers now) for capital.
IIIe-VI century. Romans abandon little by little Tingitane, where the Christianity begins to spread.
Vandal raid (429). The Byzantine control the north coasts of Morocco in the VIth century.
682. First Arabic raid in Morocco, led by Oqba ibn Nafi. The Berber Resistance.
The beginning of the VIIIth century. The Arabs seize Morocco and, with troops of Berber convert to the Islam, get a foothold in Spain led by Tariq Ibn Ziad.
THE IDRISSIDES 788-789.
Idriss ibn Abdallah, exiled from Bagdad, is welcomed by the Berbers of the region of Oualili ( Volubilis). He built the city of Fes and the first Moslem dynasty in Morocco.
803-829. Reign of Idriss II. Creation in Fes of the university Karaouiyine, then one of the most important of the world.
829-1055. The realm splits.
THE ALMORAVIDES on 1055-1082.
Almoravides, Berbers come from the Western Sahara,built Marrakesh by 1060. Their leader, Youssef ibn Tachafine, seizes Fes then spreads his conquests to Algiers.
1090-1106. Almoravides controls Moslem Spain and Senegal. Morocco becomes soaked with Andalusian culture.
1106-1143. Golden age of Marrakesh under the reign of Ali, son of Youssef ibn Tachafine,died at the age of 103 years old. By its death, the empire is again divided.
THE ALMOHADES By 1125.
The Berber Ibn Toumert builds a mosque in Tinmel, in the high Atlas Mountains.
1133-1163. His lieutenant, Adb el-Moumen, proclaimed himself a caliph, founded the Almohade dynasty and widens its empire from Spain to Tripoli in Libya.
1184-1199. Reign of Yakoub el-Mansour. Second golden age of Marrakesh. After the death of the caliph, the Maghreb is again split.
THE MERINIDES on 1245-1269.
Beni Merine, east Berbers, seize big cities of Morocco.
1276. Merinides gave themselves a new capital: Fes el-Jedid ( New-Fes)
Abou Youssef Yaccoub and his successors create an important network of medersas.
Abou el hassan lost Spain Tlemcen and Tunis. Migration of Jews and Muslims fleeing the Spanish inquisition. The Portuguese and Spanish began to settle on the Moroccan coasts.
On 1465-1549 Ouattassides, hereditary viziers of the Merinides knock down the dynasty. The central power collapses and Morocco falls under the control of the local marabouts.
1492. Fall of Grenada, last Muslim realm of Spain.
THE SAADIENS on 1554-1659.
Saadiens native of Arabia reigns over Morocco.
1578. The battle of Three Kings ruined the Portuguese ambitions in Morocco.
1590. Ahmed el-Mansour (1578-1603) took over Timbuktu (Mali)
XVIIth century. Pirates' republic of the Bou Regreg was created in Salé( north of Rabat).
1666. Moulay Rachid stemming from a cherifienne family of Tafilalet, the dynasty which still reigns over Morocco and established his capital in Fes.
1672-1727. Reign of Moulay Ismail, transfers the capital to Meknes.
1880. The conference of Madrid was about the European commercial ambitions in Morocco.
1894-1908. Reign of Abd el-Aziz; growing intervention of the European in the morrocan business.
1906-1907. The conference of Algeciras recognized to the French and the Spanish a privileged «position «in Morocco. Landing of the first French troops in Casablanca.
THE PROTECTOAT (1912-1956)
1912. In application of the treaty of Fes, France and Spain divided the kingdom. General Lyautey becomes the first general French resident. The capital is transferred in Rabat.
1921-1926. War of Rif
Years 1930-1940. Development of the movement of independence, severely repressed.
1953. Exile of the sultan Mohamed Ben Youssef (Mohamed V) to Corsica and then to Madagascar.
INDEPENDENT MOROCCO 1956.
Morocco got independence from France. Mohamed V becomes a king.
1961. Enthronement of Hassan II
1975. At the conclusion of the green march, the Western Sahara, still occupied by Spanish, is taken back by Morocco.
1997. Democratization of institutions.
1998. The socialist and the opponent, Abdurrahman Youssoufi, came back from exile to be named Prime Minister.
1999.Mohamed the IV became the king of the Kingdom of Morocco.